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#115689 - 04/14/16 10:17 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: Redcap]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
J. Zhao, J. Yao, F. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Sun, L. Qu, K. Wang, Y. Su, A. Zhang, S. A. Montgomery, T. Geng, and H. Cui
Identification of candidate genes for chicken early- and late-feathering
Poultry Science 2016 : pew131v1-pew131.

Abstract:
Previous studies suggest that prolactin receptor (Prlr) is a potential causative gene for chicken early- (EF) and late-feathering (LF) phenotypes. In this study, we evaluated candidate genes for this trait and determined the expression of 3 genes, including Prlr, sperm flagellar protein 2 (Spef2), and their fusion gene, in the skins of one-day-old EF and LF chicks using RT­qPCR. Data indicated that Prlr expression in the skin did not show significant difference between EF and LF chicks, suggesting Prlr may not be a suitable candidate gene. In contrast, Spef2 expression in the skin displayed a significant difference between EF and LF chicks (P < 0.01), suggesting that Spef2 may be a good candidate gene for chicken feathering. Moreover, dPrlr/dSpef2, the fusion gene, was also a good candidate gene as it was expressed only in LF chicks. However, the expression of the fusion gene was much lower than that of Prlr. Additionally, using strand-specific primers, we found that the fusion gene was transcribed in 2 directions (one from dPrlr promoter, another from dSpef2 promoter), which could result in the formation of a double strand RNA. In conclusion, both Spef2 and the fusion gene are good candidate genes for chicken feathering, but Prlr is not. The research on the function and regulation of the candidate genes will help elucidate the molecular basis of the chicken feathering trait.
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#115693 - 04/22/16 03:58 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: KazJaps]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
http://www.lgcgroup.com/LGCGroup/media/P...ne-app-note.pdf
Variation in the ovocalyxin–32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality trait.
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#115712 - 05/03/16 11:34 AM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: KazJaps]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
Løtvedt, P., & Jensen, P. (2014). Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e103040.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103040
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#115752 - 05/07/16 06:09 AM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: KazJaps]
Robbie Offline
Flock Leader

Registered: 01/19/15
Posts: 258
Loc: Ontario Canada

GENETIC CONTROL OF MELANIN PIGMENTATION IN THE FOWL
J. Robert Smyth, Jr. Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts
No date but I believe it's 1976.
Some excellent drawings of chick/adult feather markings related to the genotype especially the E locus.

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#115793 - 05/24/16 10:14 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: Redcap]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
Originally Posted By: Redcap
There are contradictionary results.

Particularly Herpes Viruses should be considered with caution
A few months ago I have found only two studies about this topic (both from 1973) - and with contradictionary claims.



Quote:
These data supported earlier findings and provided additional circumstantial evidence that MDV and HVT do not constitute a public health hazard.

http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/51/4/1123.abstract
J. M. Sharma, R. L. Witter, B. R. Burmester, and J. C. Landon
Public Health Implications of Marek's Disease Virus and Herpesvirus of Turkeys. Studies on Human and Subhuman Primates
JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (1973) 51 (4): 1123-1128.
Quote:
Common antigenicity has been discovered between glycoprotein antigens obtained from leukotic lesions of chickens with Marek’s disease and antigens obtained from a variety of human cancers. This suggests that Marek’s disease herpesvirus is a possible etiological agent in human cancer.

https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/224813


Makari JG (1973. Association between Marek's herpesvirus and human cancer. I. Detection of cross-reacting antigens between chicken tumors and human tumors. Oncology. 1973;28(2):164-76.


So - if the Marek virus can be considered as possible reason of human cancer it should prick up your ears because in the last 40 years the virulence has multiplied - by the vaccines itself. Nevertheless vaccination is still considered as the best way for food safety:

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/tthis-chicken-vaccine-makes-virus-dangerous
Quote:
“Food chain security and everything rests on vaccines. They are the most successful and cheapest public health interventions that we’ve ever had. We just need to consider the evolutionary consequences of these ones with leaky transmission.”


Who knows why there are so many cancer patients today? Meat consumption per se has been repeatedly discussed, but perhaps it is especially Marek-contaminated meat (under the vaccine coverage)?

This is a newer study, which I could find finally and Schat mentioned probably http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11125176
Laurent S(1), Esnault E, Dambrine G, Goudeau A, Choudat D, Rasschaert D. (2001). Detection of avian oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus DNA in human sera. J Gen Virol. 2001 Jan;82(Pt 1):233-40.

Link-Update plus Addition of two references

http://jcm.asm.org/content/41/6/2428.abstract
Holger Hennig, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Michael Müller-Steinhardt, Hanns-Martin Teichert, Holger Kirchner, and Klaus-Peter Wandinger (2003). Detection of Marek's Disease Virus DNA in Chicken but Not in Human Plasma. J. Clin. Microbiol. June 2003 41:6 2428-2432
http://oem.bmj.com/content/60/9/e4.abstract
L Fritschi, S Fenwick, M Bulsara (2003). Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of meatworkers. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:9

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#115863 - 06/27/16 08:25 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: Redcap]
KazJaps Offline
Classroom Professor

Registered: 08/30/02
Posts: 2806
Loc: Australia
The Mb muff/beard mutation has been determined, DNA sequenced.

They first determined the Mb sequence in some muff/beard Chinese breeds & then tested some European Mb breeds (Dutch Polish, Dutch Owl, Brabanter) & found the same sequence.

Guo Y, Gu X, Sheng Z, et al. 2016.
A Complex Structural Variation on Chromosome 27 Leads to the Ectopic Expression of HOXB8 and the Muffs and Beard Phenotype in Chickens.
Leeb T, ed. PLoS Genetics. 2016;12(6):e1006071. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006071.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4890787/

Note, Mb locus was found on Chromosome 27, the chromosome previously determined in the following study:

Sun Y, Liu R, Zhao G, et al. 2015.
Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis Identifies Loci for Physical Appearance Traits in Chickens.
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. 2015;5(10):2037-2041. doi:10.1534/g3.115.020883.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4592986/

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#115865 - 06/28/16 12:47 AM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: KazJaps]
KazJaps Offline
Classroom Professor

Registered: 08/30/02
Posts: 2806
Loc: Australia
With this research they DNA sequenced the MLPH gene in the Chinese Anyi tile-like gray chicken, & compared to the lav allele (previously sequenced by Vaez et al. 2008). They found the gray Anyi MLPH allele to be different to the lav allele in European lavenders (& both different sequence to wild-type).

Interactions of allele E of the MC1R gene with FM and mutations in the MLPH gene cause the five-gray phenotype in the Anyi tile-like gray chicken.
Xu JG, Xie MG, Zou SY, Liu XF, Li XH, Xie JF, Zhang XQ.
Genet Mol Res. 2016 Apr 26;15(2). doi: 10.4238/gmr.15027633.
http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2016/vol15-2/pdf/gmr7633.pdf

Previous lav study:
Vaez M, Follett SA, Bed’hom B, Gourichon D, Tixier-Boichard M, Burke T.
A single point-mutation within the melanophilin gene causes the lavender plumage colour dilution phenotype in the chicken.
BMC Genetics. 2008;9:7. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253553/

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#115878 - 06/29/16 11:38 AM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: KazJaps]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
Y. P. Wu , J. H. Huo , J. F. Xie , L. X. Liu , Q. P. Wei , M. G. Xie , Z. F. Kang , H. Y. Ji , Y. H. Ma (2014). Phylogeography and origin of Chinese domestic chicken. Mitochondrial DNA. Vol. 25, Iss. 2.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/19401736.2013.786704?journalCode=imdn20
Full text on request
Abstract
The loss of local chicken breeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China’s Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima’s D&#8201;=&#8201;&#8722;2.19, p&#8201;<&#8201;0.05) and Fu’s F-statistics (&#8722;8.59, p&#8201;<&#8201;0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chicken breeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce.
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#115880 - 06/29/16 09:29 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: Redcap]
Redcap Offline
Ruler of the Roost

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 954
Loc: Germany
This is another interesting thesis, which could support the hypothesis that the Silkies were the progenitors of Sultan Chicken and other crested/bearded breeds - at least they seems to have a close genetic relation regarding the polydactyly.

Quote:
SHH ZRS sequencing results. Breeds in which the highly conserved ZPA regulatory sequence (ZRS) of Sonic Hedgehog was sequenced for detection of SNPs associated with the polydactyly phenotype. The White Silkie and White Sultan breeds were both found to have the T allele at the SNP ss161109890 while all other breeds, both four and five toed, had the G allele.

http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/6584/1/etd.pdf

So the Silkies seems to be the progenitor of all bearded and crested chickens
See history of Silkies beginning with the description of Aristotle (btw. Does anyone know in which Book/Volume Aristotle mentioned chickens with "cat hair/fur" from the Mangi/Manzi Realm?).
http://www.aviculture-europe.nl/nummers/09e06a07.pdf
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#115975 - 08/09/16 06:59 PM Re: Journal papers online - reference list [Re: Redcap]
KazJaps Offline
Classroom Professor

Registered: 08/30/02
Posts: 2806
Loc: Australia
Some new research on white earlobe genetics (in a Rhode Island Red line). Historically believed a polygenic trait, with some evidence of sex-linked inheritance, in this new research they found further DNA evidence on the Z chromosome for the white earlobes trait.


Nie C, Zhang Z, Zheng J, Sun H, Ning Z, Xu G, Yang N, Qu L. 2016
Genome-wide association study revealed genomic regions related to white/red earlobe color trait in the Rhode Island Red chickens.
BMC Genet. 2016 Aug 5;17(1):115. doi: 10.1186/s12863-016-0422-1.
http://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12863-016-0422-1
Quote:
The study has revealed the white/red earlobe trait is polygenic and sex-linked in Rhode Island Red chickens. In the genome significant ~2.38 Mb region, twenty-three genes were found and some of them could play critical roles in the formation of white/red earlobe color, especially gene SLCO4C1

--------------------
The authors cite previous DNA research on earlobe colour by Wragg et al. 2012....

Quote:
Recently, Wragg et al. [9] identified 7 concordant significances (P < 0.05 and Z > 4) SNPs on chicken chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and Z related to white/red earlobe color by using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, indicating that earlobe color trait is sex-linked and polygenic.


Wragg D, Mwacharo JM, Alcalde JA, Hocking PM, Hanotte O. 2012
Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens.
Heredity. 2012;109(1):6–18.
http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v109/n1/full/hdy20129a.html


Edited by KazJaps (08/09/16 07:12 PM)
Edit Reason: added last quote & reference

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