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#78149 - 04/06/05 05:35 PM NPIP Blood testing information
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BLOOD TESTING PULLORUM TYPHOID BY NPIP

By Glenda L Heywood

This article may interest you all out there. Be a
member of the NPIP and have your birds tested for
pullurom typhoid or (PT) and receive a certificate that says you are a PT tested certified free flock NPIP stie is
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/npip
and when there you can go to the
Official State Agencies of the NPIP and get all the
phone numbers and addresses of the State Vets offices who are official NPIP members and can help you get a licensed blood tester to come and do the testing.
The day they come you have to ahve all your birds
locked up as each will be blood tested.

Some one to catch and hand the bird to the blood
tester, then it is released if tested negative for PT If the bird is tested possitive it will be killed or taken to the lab for further blood testing.
Only the birds that test possitive will be killed.

The way the testing is done is this
with a plexyglass plate with 2 inch sqaures marked on
the plate each square has a drop of Antigen on it and
then the blood tester takes the bird in hand and pulls
a couple feathers under the wing and sticks a needle
into the vein of the wing and the blood comes out with
the other end of the needle is a wire loop and in that
loop the blood tester takes blood from the stick place
and then puts the blood into the antigen and mixes it.

If the antigen is left plain it is negative. If the
antigen turns cloudy and grainy it is possitive for
PT. This bird will be killed.
You will pay a small feed for this testing and the
certificate, and recieve the certificate. Each year
this has to be done.

Some state also let people 18 yrs old become licensed
blood testers. Ask the state vet about this.
Here are some answers for the questions asked:

PULLORUM Some Information form the NPIP Director
Andrew R. Rhorer

Mr Rhorer
may I please have a few minutes of your time and
some much needed information.
I am doing a article on the NPIP and is value
I need to know ;
(1) how come the government allows the licesened
State blood testers to blood test at North CArolina
and GEorgia shows IF? I figure it is safe to test at
shows, so can't figure this out.

(2) if they found a PT infected bird would it be
contagious to the next set of birds tested with the
same needle and loop?

(3) I would assume it is not contagious that way?

(4) I read about pullorum that it can be carried by
mice and rats and is contagious thru carrying dander
on clothes from infected flocks.How true is this
statement.

(5) I was under the impression all this time it was
a chicken to egg to incubator hatcher thing.
Is the bird a life time carrier? And do baby chicks
having it die?

Thanks for all this and maybe I can find some of
your literature that explains it.I am an avid
promotor of the NPIP to every one that will listen.
Appreciate your time.
Glenda L. Heywood
nationalpoultrynews@yahoo.com

ANSWER
From: Andrew.R.Rhorer@aphis.usda.gov

Glenda:

Pullorum does not spread readily horizontally ( from
bird to bird). It is primarily spread vertically
(progeny and hatchery dissemination). If the
bird tests positive at the show, it should be removed
from the show for further testing. The rest of the
birds at the show are not considered
exposed unless they are in a common cage and even then
it would be unlikely that there would be spread.

Rats and mice can be a vector of pullorum through
their feces pellets that chickens will pick t and
ingest. The rats must be pullorum positive for
this to happen and that is quite rare unless they are
present on a farm where pullorum has been in the past.

It is very unlikely that pullorum would be spread
through blood testing. Pullorum generally resides in
the ovary of an infected hen and is spread to the
chick in the egg.

Best Regards,

Andy Rhorer

QUESTION FROM
Glenda L. Heywood to Mr. Rhoere
Sir
(1)if there is a pullorum positve bird taken to a
poultry show and it comes up tested positive, then
what happens?

(2)Also if this bird is taken to a show how does its
presence effect all other birds there? can all and
will all become positive for PT?

(3)Will it give pullorum to the other birds at a
poultry show?

(4)Does this bird give it litteraly to the others in
the chicken house at home also?

(5) how does the rats and mice spread pullorum?

(6) if the blood teter tested a postive bird at a
poultry show, would it then give it to all the other
birds tested? Is his equipment contaminated?

(7) thus if not, then is this why the states of North
Carolina and Georgia have live tested birds the day of
the show there?

These are questions asked by chicken people and as I
always thought it was transmitted by hen to egg to
chick to hatcher from original bird. I also did not
know a infected bird could infect the others in a
flock. or that rats and mice carry PT.

So if you got the time to anser these and any thing
else you can think of I need the information.
Thanks again and remember I am not questioning this as
i am a avid believer in the NPIP and advocate it to
every one who will listen.

A lot of new people coming into the poultry fancy and
I tell them all to get a hold of you and get a state
tester out to their palce.
Thanks ahead of time
Glenda L. Heywood

ANSWER
--- Andrew.R.Rhorer@aphis.usda.gov wrote:

Glenda:

Pullorum is an egg-transmitted and hatchery
disseminated disease. It is
generally spread from the breeding hen to her
progeny. The hen will be a
carrier for life. Generally, there is heavy
mortality in baby chicks.
Pullorum can be spread through rodents but not by
dander. Spreading
pullorum through the needle and loop is an academic
question. If the
chickens are brooded together as chicks, pullorum
can be spread readily in
the brooder.

I hope that I have answered your questions.

Andrew R. Rhorer
Senior Coordinator
National Poultry Improvement Plan

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#78150 - 04/06/05 05:57 PM Re: NPIP Blood testing information
Jim Offline
Chicken

Registered: 12/07/03
Posts: 109
Loc: Oklahoma
thank you glenda, that clears up a lot of questions i and many others have had. i have feared showing in a state where they test at the show, but this clears it up for me.

jim
_________________________
Jim

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#78151 - 04/06/05 06:14 PM Re: NPIP Blood testing information
CJR Online   content
Coop Master

Registered: 07/16/02
Posts: 8489
Loc: Montana
Thank you, Glenda.
Please do not confuse Pullorum/Typhoid with Marek's Disease, which is spread by dander, is a long lived virus, and while birds are carriers, they may show no syjmptoms, and it may or may not be a virulent strain of the virus, affecting few of the birds of a flock--or it may be a very virulent strain and many birds will die. It could be carried by a healthy appearing bird at a show, and an unprotected bird, could be infected, but it is not a high risk for show-birds. It requires responsible exhibitors!

Marek's Disease is NOT carried in the eggs, the chicks are not infected at hatch unless exposed to the virus through the dander (chicken's body-"dust") of any carriers in the flock. Hatchery or incubator hatched chicks, are unlikely to ever be infected, so vaccination of those chicks is a very good immunity expectation and worth the little extra cost. By vaccination at hatch, chicks may have a long term immunity to Marek's. Even unvaccinated chicks from hatcheries, will not be bringing the virus with them--but may be exposed when they arrive at a premises where carrier birds have EVER lived. Few chicks or young birds will exhibit any symptoms before several months of age, the pullets most often just at point of lay. The virus is considered to be world wide and any unvaccinated (or naturally immune (?) bird is always at risk--any age. CJR

CJR

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